Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Convulsive Ingatherings - Sightings (Martin Marty)

There are many, among whom I count myself, who are still trying to make sense of Brexit. Why would the citizens of Great Britain vote to exit the European Union. I'm not a Brit so there is much about the situation that I lack knowledge. My sense is that this is a complicated issue, and there different rationales embraced by different folk. Martin Marty takes a look at Brexit and other similar expressions of what might best be termed tribalism. The EU, like the UN, emerged out of a world gone mad. Two world wars had convulsed Europe and had drawn in much of the rest of the world, bringing death and destruction to millions. Maybe cooperation would be a better option, but at least for some, if not many, cooperation isn't welcome. In any case, Marty offers us some food for thought.

Convulsive Ingatherings
By MARTIN E. MARTY   JUNE 27, 2016
Great Britain votes to leave the EU.                                    Artist: / 
The text for our mid-year, mid-decade Sightings has been with us from the beginnings of The Fundamentalism Project of the American Academy of Arts and Science, which R. Scott Appleby and I co-directed decades ago. Its words addressed discontents and upheavals associated with the word “Fundamentalism” and its synonyms, but their applicability is portable. Think of “Brexit” and other stresses on The European Union, the character of American partisanship in this election year, the fights over the word “Islam,” and language about immigration, classes (as in “elites” versus “dissenters”) etc. as we repeat these opening words from Harold Isaacs’ still-important Idols of the Tribe. 

“We are experiencing on a massively universal scale a convulsive ingathering of people in their numberless grouping of kinds—tribal, racial, linguistic, religious, national. It is a great clustering into separatenesses that will, it is thought, improve, insure, or extend each group’s power or place, to keep it safe or safer from the power, threat, or hostility of others.”

Isaacs did not observe or contend, nor do we, that such “convulsive ingatherings” are unprecedented or, that all “ingatherings” are unnecessary and destructive—this side of their often being “convulsive.” He did chronicle what was novel in the tribal idolatries of the 1970s, and we applied to the “religious” versions, in various “fundamentalisms.” In the threat to the EU experiment, many observers are giving “religious” kinds a bit of rest in the United Kingdom, while they are on the rise in American politics and media.

To do an encompassing analysis of the Brexit champions, or, this week, of religious convulsions in, for example, the Middle East or the United States; is not possible in this small space or by this small analyst. For the moment it is urgent to understand why a British electoral majority, however slight, chose to demolish the dreams of cooperation, economic and otherwise, on a continent which, in the past century, saw dreams deferred, nay, demolished, as nation rose up against nation in the two most destructive wars in history.

The immediate occasion for the present chaos, is reaction against immigrants, immigration, and governmental elites which have not found or chosen ways to convulsively ingather people into “clusters” of “separatenesses.” Are there counter-trends?

Last week on page one were accounts of Pope Francis, who contends against separateness-forces (including many associated with his Church), but whose reference to the late Ottoman Empire’s killings of populations in Armenia as “genocide” irritated Turks. Many others of his reconciling gestures produce non-convulsive gatherings across tribal (religious, national, and other boundaries) but, alas, also see the convulsive reactions of many in his own Catholic flocks, in Europe and elsewhere.

The ecumenical and interfaith movements do their part to keep ears and boundaries open, but their resources are limited. Voices for understanding promote support of better immigration policies and relief for suffering immigrants. They do not get tweeted or twittered or financed in ways that help them emerge as popular counter-signs or as forces which do not demand fealty to the “idols of the tribes,” but which do exemplify more open and generous dealings among peoples in their gatherings.

Few, in our reading and hearing, are optimistic, but not all have abandoned hope.

NOTE from Martin E. Marty: After three-plus years, during which I learned to spell her Gallic first name, Myriam Renaud, is completing her term as editor of Sightings, a role in which she served capably and creatively. She moves on to complete her doctoral dissertation. In these years she has undangled many participles and unsplit many infinitives in my Monday columns and, no doubt, in the first drafts of others’ Thursday columns, while providing counsel about topics and managing the affairs of Sightings. She is the latest in a continuity of editors who have made life easier for contributors and our columns more appealing to an ever-growing circle of influence. We have clear measures of her behind-the-scenes accomplishments both in “increasing exposure” of the semi-weekly columns and of “widening the conversation” by featuring a greater variety of authors, who do their sightings beyond the range of my personal circles of familiarity. The Martin Marty Center is much in her debt, as are our readers. À bientôt, Myriam!


Yardley, Jim, Alison Smale, Jane Perlez and Ben Hubbard. “Britain Rattles Postwar Order and Its Place as Pillar of Stability.” New York Times, June 25, 2016, Europe.

Wheeler, Brian and Alex Hunt. “The UK’s EU referendum: All you need to know.”BBC News, June 24, 2016.

Travis, Alan. “Fear of immigration drove the leave victory—not immigration itself.”The guardian, June 24, 2016, EU Referendum.

A tragic split.” The Economist, June 24, 2016, Britain and the EU.

Isaacs, Harold and Lucian W. Pye. Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Povoledo, Elisabetta. “Pope Francis Condemns ‘Genocide’ of Armenians Before Visit to Memorial.” New York Times, June 24, 2016, Asia Pacific.

McElwee, Joshua J. “In Armenia, Francis risks rift with Turkey by calling historic killings ‘genocide’.” Catholic Reporter, June 24, 2016, News.

Image: Great Britain voted to leave the EU on June 24, 2016; Credit: / creative commons.

To comment: email the Managing Editor, Myriam Renaud, If you would like your comment to appear with this article on the Marty Center's website, please provide your full name in the body of the email and indicate in the subject line: POST COMMENT TO [title of Sightings piece]. ForSightings' comment policy, visit:
Author, Martin E. Marty, is the Fairfax M. Cone Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of the History of Modern Christianity at the University of Chicago Divinity School. His biography, publications, and contact information can be found at
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